Higher temperatures and a reduction in rainfall expected as a result of climate change will reduce already depleted water resources, contributing to an increasing number of droughts in the country. South Africa’s development is highly dependent on climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture and forestry.
How are droughts affected by climate change?
Warmer temperatures lead to drying
Global warming increases the risk of drought in several ways. … As high air temperatures sap liquid water from soils and plant leaves, transforming it into atmospheric water vapor via a process called transpiration, ground-level drying will increase in some regions.
How is South Africa affected by climate change?
Health risks in South Africa that climate change would aggravate over the next few decades include heat stress; vector-borne diseases (such as malaria, dengue fever and yellow fever); extreme weather events; air pollution; communicable diseases (such as HIV/AIDS, TB and cholera), and non-communicable diseases (such as …
What is causing drought in South Africa?
In 2015/2016, human-caused warming contributed to droughts in southern African by increasing El Niño sea surface temperatures and local air temperatures, causing reduced rainfall and runoff, and contributing to severe food insecurity.
How does climate change affect droughts and floods?
Global warming affects evapotranspiration—the movement of water into the atmosphere from land and water surfaces and plants due to evaporation and transpiration— which is expected to lead to: Increased drought in dry areas.
How does climate change affect flooding and drought?
Climate warming also increases evaporation on land, which can worsen drought and create conditions more prone to wildfire and a longer wildfire season. A warming atmosphere is also associated with heavier precipitation events (rain and snowstorms) through increases in the air’s capacity to hold moisture.
Is South Africa in a drought?
The 2018–2021 Southern Africa drought is an ongoing period of drought taking place in Southern Africa. The drought began in late October 2018, and is negatively affecting food security in the region. … The drought continued into early 2021.
What are the 5 causes of climate change in South Africa?
The burning of fossil fuels (e.g. through driving cars and to produce electricity), the cutting down of rainforests, the destruction of native vegetation, unsustainable development, the increase of livestock farming, industrial processes and an increased amount of waste going to landfills all contribute to speeding up …
How does climate change affect economy of South Africa?
The impacts of climate change on overall economic growth are predominately negative, although not large, especially over the next 10-20 years. … On aggregate, climate change has a small impact on the ability to meet water demand, because of South Africa’s well-functioning water transfer network.
What are causes and effects of drought in South Africa?
Drought in South Africa caused by El Niño, human action and climate change. The present drought in Cape Town has been caused by extremely poor rainfall in recent months, with the result that the water supplies are under enormous pressure.
What are the impacts of drought?
Examples of drought impacts on society include anxiety or depression about economic losses, conflicts when there is not enough water, reduced incomes, fewer recreational activities, higher incidents of heat stroke, and even loss of human life. Drought conditions can also provide a substantial increase in wildfire risk.
How does climate change affect rainfall?
Climate change can affect the intensity and frequency of precipitation. Warmer oceans increase the amount of water that evaporates into the air. When more moisture-laden air moves over land or converges into a storm system, it can produce more intense precipitation—for example, heavier rain and snow storms.
What are the causes and effects of drought?
When rainfall is less than normal for a period of weeks to years, streamflows decline, water levels in lakes and reservoirs fall, and the depth to water in wells increases. If dry weather persists and water-supply problems develop, the dry period can become a drought. Learn more: USGS Drought website.
How climate change is causing shortages and droughts in some areas and floods in others?
Climate change is disrupting weather patterns, leading to extreme weather events, unpredictable water availability, exacerbating water scarcity and contaminating water supplies. … Around 74 per cent of natural disasters between 2001 and 2018 were water-related, including droughts and floods.