Arctic amplification (AA)—referring to the enhancement of near-surface air temperature change over the Arctic relative to lower latitudes—is a prominent feature of climate change with important impacts on human and natural systems.
How does Arctic amplification affect climate change?
Arctic amplification is driving ice sheet melt, sea level rise, more intense Arctic fire seasons, and permafrost melt. A growing body of research also shows that rapid Arctic warming is contributing to changes in mid-latitude climate and weather.
What is amplify in climate change?
Polar amplification is the phenomenon that any change in the net radiation balance (for example greenhouse intensification) tends to produce a larger change in temperature near the poles than in the planetary average. This is commonly referred to as the ratio of polar warming to tropical warming.
How does Arctic amplification cause the Arctic to warm at a faster rate than the rest of the planet?
This amplification is primarily caused by melting ice — a process that is increasing in the Arctic at a rate of 13% per decade. … When ice melts, it typically reveals darker areas of land or sea, and this results in increased sunlight absorption and associated warming.
Why is the Arctic a climate change hotspot?
For the Arctic, the key determinants making it a hotspot under high warming levels are the relatively large changes in DJF, MAM and SON mean temperatures and precipitations; in JJA and SON extreme hot seasons; and in extreme wet occurrences throughout the year.
How does Arctic amplification correlate with the concept of albedo?
They found that models with larger increases in ocean heat transport, larger increases in cloud cover, and thinner control climate sea ice tended to have larger Arctic amplification. They proposed that thinner sea ice would lead to an increased ice-albedo feedback.
How does climate change affect Arctic animals?
The shorter season of the temporary sea ice is now impacting on several species of Arctic animals – including polar bears and Arctic foxes, which need the sea ice to hunt, and walruses, which use sea ice as a resting and hunting platform. …
Why is the Arctic warming faster than the Antarctic?
Ice is more reflective and less absorbent of sunlight than land or the surface of an ocean. When ice melts, it typically reveals darker areas of land or sea, and this results in increased sunlight absorption and associated warming. Polar amplification is much stronger in the Arctic than in Antarctica.
What are the direct effects of the Arctic warming?
Without urgent action to cut greenhouse gas emissions, the world will continue to feel the effects of a warming Arctic: rising sea levels, changes in climate and precipitation patterns, increasing severe weather events, and loss of fish stocks, birds and marine mammals.
What are the problems associated with global warming in the Arctic coastal area?
The warming has caused a cascade of physical changes, from direct effects such as the melting of sea-ice and sea level rise, to secondary effects such as decreased albedo (surface reflectivity) and coastal erosion, to tertiary effects such as the accelerated warming of the ocean due to feedback loops between different …
How is climate change affecting the north?
A shifting climate can change air and water currents that bring contaminants into the Arctic. Also, changes in ice cover and thawing permafrost appear to have contributed to increased mercury levels in some northern lakes. This results in more contaminants making their way into plants, animals, and ultimately humans.