What are the environmental factors of tuberculosis?

For centuries, TB has been linked anecdotally with environmental risk factors that go hand-in-hand with poverty: indoor air pollution, tobacco smoke, malnutrition, overcrowded living conditions, and excessive alcohol use.

What environmental factors can reduce the spread of tuberculosis?

Managing your environment

good ventilation: as TB can remain suspended in the air for several hours with no ventilation. natural light: UV light kills off TB bacteria. good hygiene: covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing reduces the spread of TB bacteria.

What factors affect tuberculosis?

Diabetes, alcohol, malnutrition, tobacco smoke, and indoor air pollution are factors which impact a larger section of the population and accelerate progression to TB disease. This paper aims to summarize the risk factors which contribute to TB infection and disease at both individual and population level.

What is the environment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis?

Transmission of M tuberculosis from the environment is possible as TB bacilli have been isolated from sputum or carpet up to 19 days, wood over 88 days, and moist and dry soil up to 4 weeks following contamination. Furthermore, not only can M tuberculosis survive in soil, but it also remains virulent.

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Is tuberculosis genetic or environmental?

Whilst the contribution of host genetic factors to tuberculosis susceptibility is now well established, it is not surprising that tuberculosis has a strong environmental component. Exposure intensities, poor health, malnutrition or social stress are known to contribute to increased risk of developing tuberculosis.

What are the economic factors of tuberculosis?

It is recognised that low socio-economic background can contribute to the increased risk of TB and unfavourable TB treatment outcomes (4–6). In sub-Saharan Africa, being single, low education, unemployment, low income, poverty, smoking, and alcohol use were shown to be associated with TB (7, 8).

How can Tuberculosis be prevented from spreading?

Stop the Spread of TB

  1. Take all of your medicines as they’re prescribed, until your doctor takes you off them.
  2. Keep all your doctor appointments.
  3. Always cover your mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. …
  4. Wash your hands after coughing or sneezing.
  5. Don’t visit other people and don’t invite them to visit you.

Who is likely to get TB?

Tuberculosis mostly affects adults in their most productive years. However, all age groups are at risk. Over 95% of cases and deaths are in developing countries. People who are infected with HIV are 18 times more likely to develop active TB (see TB and HIV section below).

What are the 3 types of tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis: Types

  • Active TB Disease. Active TB is an illness in which the TB bacteria are rapidly multiplying and invading different organs of the body. …
  • Miliary TB. Miliary TB is a rare form of active disease that occurs when TB bacteria find their way into the bloodstream. …
  • Latent TB Infection.
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What factor led to the decline of tuberculosis?

The dramatic decline in tuberculosis (TB) in developed countries during the past century, even prior to the introduction of effective anti-TB drugs, has been attributed to many factors, including improvements in social conditions and nutrition,1 reduced crowding2 and segregation of infectious cases either to workhouses …

Where is tuberculosis found in nature?

tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB, has been the subject of much recent investigation, and it is thought that the bacteria in the genus Mycobacterium, like other actimomycetes, were initially found in soil and that some species evolved to live in mammals.

How does geography affect tuberculosis?

The risk of TB has a strong relationship with climate and the average of annual rain, so that the risk of TB in areas with low annual rainfall and extra dry climate is more than other regions.

Is tuberculosis spread by contaminated water?

The authors posit that contamination of water sources with M tuberculosis may occur through expectoration. However, since both human stool and urine can harbor M tuberculosis, sewage contamination of water sources could potentially be another source.